Sunday, June 18, 2006

Rapid Prototyping

The traditional (modern) ID process has been criticized for generating models that are tool complex to use effectively and for focusing too much on strictly observable (behavioral) outcomes without addressing the more subtle aspects of learning such as reflection, retention and motivation.

Rapid Prototyping, an example of a postmodernist approach, can be summarized as:

  • Final product is developed through the creation of a number of prototypes.
  • Each prototype is evaluated by some experts and end users.
  • Each successive prototype is more like the final product.

(Brown, A. & Green, T.D., (2006). The Essentials of Instructional Design: Connecting Fundamental Principles with Process and Practice. Pearson, Merrill/Prentice Hall.)

An illustration of the model can be found in this link: Rapid Prototyping as an instructional design

Suggested Readings:

Tripp, S. D., & Bichelmeyer, B. (1990). Rapid protoyping: An alternative instructional design strategy. Educational Technology, Research and Development, 38(1), 31-44.

Wilson, B. G., Jonassen, D. H., & Cole, P. (1993). Cognitive approaches to instructional design. In G. M. Piskurich (Ed.), The ASTD handbook of instructional technology (pp. 21.1-21.22). New York: McGraw-Hill.

What are Instructional Design Models?

ID models explain the instructional design process and provide guidelines and procedures that can be applied to a wide variety of situations. Every instructional designer should become familiar with two of the most famous models (Brown & Green, 2006):

1. The Dick & Carey Model is a classic example of performing an ID task systematically.

Here's an illustration of the model. This model includes 10 elements (scroll down to read "Elements of Dick & Carey.")

2. The Morrison, Ross & Kemp Model - There's no specific sequence in this model; each element may be addressed at any time during the ID process.

Here's an illustration of the model. This model includes 9 elements.


Sunday, June 11, 2006

What is Instructional Design?

The purpose of any design activity is to devise optimal means to achieve desired ends. - Charles Reigeluth

Here's a four-part definition of instructional design(

Instructional Design as a Process:
Instructional Design is the systematic development of instructional specifications using learning and instructional theory to ensure the quality of instruction. It is the entire process of analysis of learning needs and goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those needs. It includes development of instructional materials and activities; and tryout and evaluation of all instruction and learner activities.

Instructional Design as a Discipline:
Instructional Design is that branch of knowledge concerned with research and theory about instructional strategies and the process for developing and implementing those strategies.

Instructional Design as a Science:
Instructional design is the science of creating detailed specifications for the development, implementation, evaluation, and maintenance of situations that facilitate the learning of both large and small units of subject matter at all levels of complexity.

Instructional Design as Reality:
Instructional design can start at any point in the design process. Often a glimmer of an idea is developed to give the core of an instruction situation. By the time the entire process is done the designer looks back and she or he checks to see that all parts of the "science" have been taken into account. Then the entire process is written up as if it occurred in a systematic fashion.

There are four major elements in the instructional design process:

  • For whom is the program developed? (characteristics of learners or trainees)
  • What do you want the learners or trainees to learn or demonstrate? (objectives)
  • How is the subject content or skill best learned? (instructional strategies)
  • How do you determine the extent to which learning is achieved? (evaluation procedures)

(Morrison, G. R., Ross, S. M., & Kemp, J. E. (2004). Designing Effective Instruction (4th edition). New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.)

Or, ID can be summarized as a 3-step process:

  • Analyze the situation to determine what instruction is necessary and the steps that need to be taken to deliver the instruction.
  • Produce and implement the instructional design.
  • Evaluate the results of implementing the instructional design.

(Brown, A. & Green, T.D., (2006). The Essentials of Instructional Design: Connecting Fundamental Principles with Process and Practice. Pearson, Merrill/Prentice Hall.)

Instructional Technology Online Resources

Professional Organizations & Conferences

Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE) (There are many conferences associated with this organization. click on Conferences for conference info.)

Association for Educational Communications & Technology (AECT) (click on Conferences for conference info.)

International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) (click on NECC for conference info.)

National Educational Computing Association (NECA)

Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education (SITE)

American Society for Training and Development (ASTD)

International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI)

Society for Applied Learning Technology (SALT)

Computer-Using Educators (CUE) (click on Conference for conference info.)

TechEd International Conference & Exposition (by The Community College Foundation):